Hijrah is also spelled as Hejira or Hijra it can also be termed as Flight or Emigration, Latin Hegira, the Prophet Hazrat Muhammad’s migration in 622 CE from Makkah to Madinah in order to escape from the tribe of Quraysh. The date defines the starting point of the Muslim Era.It was Hazrat Umar, the second caliph, who in the year 639 CE introduced the Hijrah era which is now distinguished by the initials ah for Latin anno Hegirae termed as in the year of the Hijrah. Hazrat Umar started the first year Hihrah with the first day of the lunar month of Muḥarram in Islamic calendar which is in accordance to the July 16, 622, on the Julian calendar. In 1677–78 (ah 1088) the Ottoman government, still keeping the Hijrah era, they started to use the solar (Julian) year, by creating two different Hijrah era dates, that resulted from the differences between a solar and a lunar year.
The term Hijrah has also been referred to the emigrations of the faithful to Ethiopia and of Hazrat Muhammad’s followers to Madinah before the capture of Makkah. Muslims who later quitted lands under Christian rule were also called muhajirun also termed as emigrants. The Khawarij also termed as Kharijites are those Muslims who withdrew their support from the negotiation referring to the question of the right of the fourth caliph named as Hazrat Ali, to the caliphate in 657 CE, term was used to describe those who joined them.
The most-honored Muhajirun are considered those known as the Companions of the Prophet, are those who immigrated with Hazrat Muhammad to Madinah. Hazrat Muhammad praised them highly for leaving their native city and following him and promised that Allah Almighty would favor them for their act. They remained as a separate and greatly significant group in the Muslim community, both in Makkah and in Madinah, and assumed leadership of the Muslim state, through the caliphate, after Hazrat Muhammad’s death.
As a result of the Hijrah, another distinct body of Muslims came into being which are called as Anṣār and also termed as the helpers. They were residents of Madinah who helped Hazrat Muhammad and the Muhajirun. The Anṣar belongs to the two major Madinah tribes named as the feuding al-Khazraj and al-Aws, whom Hazrat Muhammad had been asked to reunite when he was still a prominent figure in Makkah. They came to be his devoted supporters that constitute the three-fourths of the Muslim army in the Battle of Badr that occur on 624 CE.
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